Kangaroos are marsupials and belong to the Family Macropodidae (i.e. big feet) that is grouped with the Potoroidae (potoroos, bettongs, rat-kangaroos) and Hypsiprymnodontidae (musky rat-kangaroo) in the Super-Family, Macropodoidea. This comprises around 50 species in
The Pademelons are small, compact, short-tailed wallabies that typically inhabit wet sclerophyll and rainforests from Tasmania to New Guinea. The genus is equally diverse in New Guinea (4 species) and Australia (3 species) with one of the latter, the Red-legged Pademelon (T. stigmatica), in both regions. The Pademelons occupy an interesting taxonomic position and may have been the ancestors of both Tree-kangaroos and Rock-wallabies a few million years ago. Given the absence of Rock-wallabies from New Guinea but presence of Pademelons in both Australia and New Guinea, Tree-kangaroos likely evolved first, probably in New Guinea, and two species entered the far north through Cape York. Rock-wallabies evolved later in Australia, probably on the east coast where Pademelons are found, and when no suitable habitat breached the Torres Strait or Bass Strait given their absence from Tasmania.
Reddish coloured fur is something of a theme with red-bellied, red-necked and red-legged in the species common names. They emerge from forest cover at night to eat succulent grasses and take some browse. They have remained common over much of their geographic range but the Tasmanian Pademelon was once found in south-eastern South Australia and Victoria. Dense thickets of vegetation are required for shelter and so habitat fragmentation and clearing reduce the viability of populations.
Red-legged Pademelon (Cape York)
Thylogale stigmatica coxenii ('pricked [pattern] pouched-weasel')
Iron Range National Park, Queensland
The Iron Range National Park is in a remote location on the east coast of Cape York, 752 km north of Cairns along the Developmental Road. The turn-off is 20 km north of the Archer River Roadhouse and the ranger station is a further 110 km along a 4WD drive access road. Visitors should come in the Dry season (April-September) as roads are likely to be closed by flooding in the Wet Season. The Park protects a very large remnant of coastal rainforest but the landscapes are diverse from beaches, rainforest and the heath covered Tozer Range, interspersed by dry eucalypt and paperbark woodland.
The Park attracts bird-watchers as it contains species found here and in New Guinea with very restricted ranges in Australia. The Park is well-served with campgrounds at Rainforest, Gordons Creek, Cooks Hut and Chili Beach. Even so facilities are few with toilets only at Cooks Hut and Chilli Beach so visitors must be self-sufficient in food and water. The only designated walking tracks are a 10 km walk from the Rainforest campground and a short 80 m ascent to Mt Tozer. The beaches are also accessible for walking but beware of estuarine crocodiles.
The Park has a diverse mammal fauna with Antilopine Wallaroos, Agile Wallabies, Swamp Wallabies and Cape York Rock-wallabies amongst the macropods. Through spotlighting you can also see Spotted Cuscus, Striped Possums and Sugar Gliders around campsites like Chili Beach. The avifauna is spectacular with Palm Cockatoos, Eclectus Parrots and Magnificent Rifle-birds amongst the attractions.
Males to 6.8 kg (average 5.1 kg) and females to 4.2 kg (average 4.1 kg). The Red-legged Pademelon has a slender body covered in short, soft fur giving it a sleek appearance. The primary colour is red- grey on the back, with the grey dominating the forequarters and a red-brown colour on the lower back. The face likewise becomes redder towards the top of the head starting with a grey muzzle through to a rust-red colour on the cheeks and bases of the ears. There is a pale indistinct cheek stripe highlighted by a red bar below it. The backs of the ears and head, and the neck are brown with a faint dark dorsal stripe. The sides are a rich red bleeding into a white abdomen. The hip is marked by a yellow stripe. The species gets its common name from the brilliant rust-red colour on the outsides of the legs. The arms are red-brown, the hands and feet are red-grey, and the digits dark brown. The short thick tail is a uniform grey-brown above and lighter below. There is some variation in colour amongst the sub-species with a grey abdomen in southern populations. Rainforest inhabiting populations also tend to be darker.
The Red-legged Pademelon prefers tropical and sub-tropical rainforest but can be found in other moist habitat like wet sclerophyll forest, vine thickets and areas around swampland. It has a broad latitudinal range from northern NSW to Cape York and lowland rainforest in New Guinea. The geographic ranges are disjunct and this separation has lead to genetic divergence and sub-speciation. In the southern part of its range it is sympatric with Red-necked Pademelons.
The diet of the Red-legged Pademelon is diverse and includes little grass in the northern part of its range where it consumes other climbing monocotyledons, ferns and various dicotyledons including herbs and leaves taken from the plant or on the ground. They also eat seeds and fruit like figs and Burdekin Plum (Pleiogynium timorense). In the north, the diet is supplied within the rainforest whereas in the south where they overlap with Red-necked Pademelons they may graze grasses, native and introduced, out from the forest edge.
They can be active throughout the day and night with a deeper rest period around midday through to mid-afternoon. In the day they forage in the shelter of the rainforest and emerge onto open habitat out from the forest edge only at night.
Breeding is continuous. The pouch life is around 6.5 - 7 months. Gestation is about 28 - 30 d with a post-partum oestrus and mating within 2-12 h of birth. Embryonic diapause occurs if the pouch is occupied. Young are weaned at about 9 months. Females mature at 11 months and males at 15 months.
The species is sexually dimorphic with males larger and more muscular in the forelimbs and chest than females. Males court females with a soft clucking vocalisation typical of many macropods. In aggressive encounters within and between the sexes a harsh rasping vocalisation is uttered. Individuals are usually solitary but may aggregate on nocturnal foraging areas where sexual interactions may occur.
Home ranges are relatively small at 1-4 ha and include distinct daytime areas in the forest and smaller night-time areas on pasture at the forest edge. The Pademelons stay in or close to cover at all times and rarely venture more than 70 m from the forest edge. They are hunted by dingoes but also fall prey to large pythons and foxes in the southern part of their range. Individuals are usually solitary in the forest but may aggregate in loose intermingling groups at night when in open habitat.
Johnson PM, Vernes K (1994) Reproduction in the red-legged pademelon, Thylogale stigmatica Gould (Marsupialia: Macropdodidae) and age estimation and development of pouch young. Wildlife Research 21, 553-558.
Vernes K (1995) The diet of the red-legged pademelon Thylogale stigmatica Gould (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) in frgamented tropical rainforest, north Queensland. Mammalia 59, 517-525.
Vernes K, Marsh H, Winter J (1995) Home-range characteristics and movement patterns of the Red-legged Pademelon (Thylogale stigmatica) in a fragmented tropical forest. Wildlife Research 22, 699-708.